Gene-Environment, Admixture and Latino Asthmatics Study
The Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, & Environments (SAGE) and the Genes-Environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study both began in 2006 and are parallel case-control studies with similar protocols and questionnaires. Subjects were recruited from 5 urban study centers across the mainland United States and Puerto Rico (Oh et al, 2012 Table E1 (2)); SAGE subjects were recruited only from the San Francisco Bay Area. All subjects were 8 to 21 years old with physician-diagnosed asthma (cases) and no history of other lung or chronic illnesses (cases and controls); active smokers were excluded. Parents and grandparents must have self-identified as Latino (GALA II) or black (SAGE). Additional inclusion/exclusion criteria are detailed in Oh et al, 2012 Table E2 (2). SAGE also included a small number of subjects (300 cases and 300 controls between the ages of 8 and 40 years) with similar protocols and questionnaires adapted from GALA I (1). Each participating center’s institutional review board reviewed and approved the study. Written informed consent was provided by each child’s parent or legal guardian and if 18 and older, by the subject.
1. Burchard EG, Avila PC, Nazario S, Casal J, Torres A, Rodriguez-Santana JR, et al. Lower bronchodilator responsiveness in Puerto Rican than in Mexican subjects with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Feb 1;169(3):386-92.
2. Oh SS, Tcheurekdjian H, Roth LA, Nguyen EA, Sen S, Galanter JM, et al. Effect of secondhand smoke on asthma control among black and Latino children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jun;129(6):1478,83.e7.